Main Article Content

Relisa Nuris Shifa
Endyka Erye Frety
Astika Gita Ningrum


Background: The first six months after birth are part of the first 1000 days, a golden period for child development. In this period, the child needed proper nutrition to support optimal development and as nutrition programming. WHO recommends exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) for the first 6th-month. Adequacy of nutrition and optimal growth can be assessed using the nutritional status. 

Aim: This study analyzes the relationship between EBF for the first 6 months with the nutritional status of a full-term infant aged 0-6 months. The nutritional status assessed using anthropometric measurements and child growth standards.

Methods: This type of literature review research uses the PRISMA, PICO, and Boolean Operator methods. The research question with PICO standard "What is a relationship between exclusive breastfeeding practice and nutritional status of children aged 0-6 months?". Relevant literature was obtained from 8 databases: Scopus, Portal Garuda, Proquest, Mendeley, Pubmed, Oxford, Science Direct, and Sage. Literature was limited to the last 10 years. There are 6 relevant pieces of literature included for review. The literature quality assessment uses a quantitative study quality assessment tool released by the EPHPP (Effective Public Health Practice Project) and produces 5 pieces of literature worthy of review.

 Results: From 5 kinds of literature, there were various indicators of nutritional status such as weight-for-age (WAZ), length-for-age (LAZ), weight-for-length (WLZ), Body Mass Index (BMI)-for-age, and head circumference (HC)-for-age. The results were dominated by insignificant results, except the HC-for-age indicator stated that there were significant results. The author explores the causes of insignificant results. Explores based on the indicators that include in studies, the information based on studies, and the possible consequences that adjusted to the data based on the studies. The Author found that the mother plays an important role in the production and provision of breast milk. The quality of breastmilk depends on the mother, also how she gives it to their infant. It has to be based on the WHO recommendation.

Conclusion: The result of these studies affirms that EBF didn't significantly affect the indicators of WAZ, LAZ, WLZ, and BMI-for-age, but significantly affected the head circumference-for-age indicator.

Article Details

How to Cite
Nuris Shifa, R., Sulistiawati, Endyka Erye Frety, & Astika Gita Ningrum. (2021). THE FIRST 6TH-MONTH NUTRITIONAL STATUS OF A FULL-TERM CHILD IN EXCLUSIVE BREASTFEEDING: A LITERATURE REVIEW. SEAJOM: The Southeast Asia Journal of Midwifery, 7(1), 1-21.


1000 days. (2020). Why 1000 Days? Retrieved from 1000 days website:
Anderson, J., McKinley, K., Onugha, J., Duazo, P., Chernoff, M., & Quinn, E. A. (2016). Lower levels of human milk adiponectin predict offspring weight for age: a study in a lean population of Filipinos. Maternal and Child Nutrition.
Anindya, I. G., Salimo, H., & Dewi, Y. R. R. (2019). Hubungan Pemberian ASI Eksklusif Dan Status Gizi Ibu Dengan Pertumbuhan Lingkar Kepala Bayi Usia 6 Bulan Relationship among Exclusive Breastfeeding and Maternal Nutritional Status with the Growth of Head Circumference. 263–268.
Anindya, I. G., Salimo, H., & Dewi, Y. R. R. (2020). The Association between Exclusive Breastfeeding, Maternal Nutritional Status, Maternal Zinc Intake, and Stunting in Infants Aged 6 Months. Journal of Maternal and Child Health, 5(1), 37–49. Retrieved from
Bachour, P., Yafawi, R., Jaber, F., Choueiri, E., & Abdel-Razzak, Z. (2012). Effects of smoking, mother’s age, body mass index, and parity number on lipid, protein, and secretory immunoglobulin a concentrations of human milk. Breastfeeding Medicine.
Badillo-Suárez, P. A., Rodríguez-Cruz, M., & Nieves-Morales, X. (2017). Impact of Metabolic Hormones Secreted in Human Breast Milk on Nutritional Programming in Childhood Obesity. Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia, 22(3), 171–191.
Ballard, O., & Morrow, A. L. (2013). Human Milk Composition: Nutrients and Bioactive Factors. NIH-PA Author Manuscript, 3(3), 221–233.
Basrowi, R. W. (2018). Perkembangan dan Kematangan Saluran Cerna. (June). Retrieved from
Bechiri, L., Kadi, H., Bouldjadj, I., Elokki, E. H. M., Dahliz, I., & Dahel, C. C. (2020). Breastfeeding and growth of healthy infants followed from birth to 18 months. African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development, 20(5), 16386–16402.
Black, R. E., Victora, C. G., Walker, S. P., Bhutta, Z. A., Christian, P., De Onis, M., … Uauy, R. (2013). Maternal and child undernutrition and overweight in low-income and middle-income countries. The Lancet.
Chan, D., Goruk, S., Becker, A. B., Subbarao, P., Mandhane, P. J., Turvey, S. E., … Azad, M. B. (2018). Adiponectin, leptin and insulin in breast milk: Associations with maternal characteristics and infant body composition in the first year of life. International Journal of Obesity.
Ferreira, H. D. S., Xavier Júnior, A. F. S., De Assunção, M. L., Dos Santos, E. A., & Horta, B. L. (2013). Effect of breastfeeding on head circumference of children from impoverished communities. Breastfeeding Medicine.
Giugliani, E. R. J. (2019). Growth in exclusively breastfed infants. Jornal de Pediatria.
Herba, C. M., Roza, S., Govaert, P., Hofman, A., Jaddoe, V., Verhulst, F. C., & Tiemeier, H. (2013). Breastfeeding and early brain development: The Generation R study. Maternal and Child Nutrition.
Hidayati, M. N., Rukmi, R., Perdani, W., Karima, N., Kedokteran, F., Lampung, U., … Lampung, U. (2019). Peran Zink terhadap Pertumbuhan Anak The Role of Zinc in Children Growth. 8, 168–171.
Kemenkes RI. (2020). Peraturan Menteri Kesehatan Republik Indonesia Nomor 2 Tahun 2020 tentang Standar Antropometri Anak. 1–43. Retrieved from
Khan, M. N., & Islam, M. M. (2017). Effect of exclusive breastfeeding on selected adverse health and nutritional outcomes: A nationally representative study. BMC Public Health.
Lestari, E. F., & Dwihestie, L. K. (2020). ASI Eksklusif Berhubungan dengan Kejadian Stunting pada Balita. Jurnal Ilmiah Permas: Jurnal Ilmiah STIKES Kendal.
Lyons, K. E., Ryan, C. A., Dempsey, E. M., Ross, R. P., & Stanton, C. (2020). Breast milk, a source of beneficial microbes and associated benefits for infant health. Nutrients, 12(4), 1–30.
Ma, D., Ning, Y., Gao, H., Li, W., Wang, J., Zheng, Y., … Wang, P. (2014). Nutritional status of breast-fed and non-exclusively breast-fed infants from birth to age 5 months in 8 Chinese cities. Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 23(2), 282–292.
Nigatu, D., Azage, M., & Motbainor, A. (2019). Effect of exclusive breastfeeding cessation time on childhood morbidity and adverse nutritional outcomes in Ethiopia: Analysis of the demographic and health surveys. PLoS ONE.
Par’i, H. M., Wiyono, S., & Harjatmo, T. P. (2017). Bahan Ajar Gizi : Penilaian Status Gizi (Tahun 2017). Retrieved from
Prawirohardjo, S. (2016). Ilmu Kebidanan Sarwono Prawirohardjo. Edisi Ke-4. Jakarta: Yayasan Bina Pustaka Sarwono Prawirohardjo.
Prentice, P., Ong, K. K., Schoemaker, M. H., Van Tol, E. A. F., Vervoort, J., Hughes, I. A., … Dunger, D. B. (2016). Breast milk nutrient content and infancy growth. Acta Paediatrica, International Journal of Paediatrics.
Qian, L., Wang, B., Tang, N., Zhang, W., & Cai, W. (2012). Polymorphisms of SLC30A2 and selected perinatal factors associated with low milk zinc in Chinese breastfeeding women. Early Human Development.
Sjarif, D. R., Lestari, E. D., Mexitalia, M., Nasar, S. S., & IDAI. (2011). Buku Ajar Nutrisi Pediatrik dan Penyakit Metabolik Jilid 1. Jakarta: Ikatan Dokter Anak Indonesia.
Skirgaudas, P. S. (1987). Pediatric Nutrition Handbook. In The Nurse Practitioner (Vol. 12).
Soetjiningsih, & Ranuh, I. N. G. (2013). Tumbuh Kembang Anak (2nd ed.). Jakarta: EGC.
Subarjati, A., & Nuryanto, N. (2015). HUBUNGAN INDEKS MASSA TUBUH DENGAN KADAR LEPTIN DAN ADIPONEKTIN. Journal of Nutrition College.
Tian, H. M., Wu, Y. X., Lin, Y. Q., Chen, X. Y., Yu, M., Lu, T., & Xie, L. (2019). Dietary patterns affect maternal macronutrient intake levels and the fatty acid profile of breast milk in lactating Chinese mothers. Nutrition.
Tobi, N. S., & George, I. O. (2019). Effect of Infant and Young Child Feeding Practices on the Nutritional Status of Children 0-24 Months of Age in Port Harcourt , Nigeria. 17(December 2016), 1–21.
Uwiringiyimana, V., Ocké, M. C., Amer, S., & Veldkamp, A. (2019). Predictors of stunting with particular focus on complementary feeding practices: A cross-sectional study in the northern province of Rwanda. Nutrition, 60, 11–18.
Watson, R. R., Grimble, G., Preedy, V. R., & Zibadi, S. (2013). Nutrition in Infancy. In R. R. Watson, G. Grimble, V. R. Preedy, & S. Zibadi (Eds.), Spingerlink (1st ed., Vol. 53).
Wells, J. C. K., Jonsdottir, O. H., Hibberd, P. L., Fewtrell, M. S., Thorsdottir, I., Eaton, S., … Kleinman, R. E. (2012). Randomized controlled trial of 4 compared with 6 mo of exclusive breastfeeding in Iceland: Differences in breast-milk intake by stable-isotope probe. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 96(1), 73–79.
WHO. (2001). The World Health Organization’s infant feeding recommendation. Retrieved from World Health Organization website: breastfeeding%22 is defined as,vitamins%2C minerals and medicines).
WHO. (2006). WHO child growth standards : length/height-for-age, weight-for-age, weight-for-length, weight-forheight and body mass index-for-age : methods and development. In Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology (Vol. 51).
WHO. (2019). Vitamin A supplementation in infants and children 6–59 months of age. Retrieved from WHO website: